Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

Papillomas and wartsare benign lesions on the skin. Their appearance is caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV).

These growths ruin the look and undermine self-confidence. After all, they often occur in open areas: face, neck, décolleté. In addition, these growths are damaged by clothing and become inflamed. But the most unpleasant is when papillomas and condylomas appear on the genitals. They can not only ruin the intimate life, but also cause the development of a cancerous tumor.

The disease caused by papillomavirus is called papillomatosis. This disease is common among people who are sexually active. According to some reports, 80% of adult women have its manifestations. 70% of them were sexually infected. In men, external signs of the disease are much less common - 1% have warts on the genitals, 30-40% have an asymptomatic course of the disease.

There are two periods in a person's life where the risk of infection is particularly high. The first falls on the beginning of sexual life at 17-25 years, and the second on top of new partnerships at 35-40 years. Due to the special conditions of the development of immunity, children and adolescents who become infected from their parents are highly susceptible to this virus.

Older and overweight people are more likely to have papillomas. They have these neoplasms appearing in the skin folds and in the face.

Infection with a virus does not always lead to the appearance of papillomas. The causative agent lives in skin cells, and if a person's immunity is strong, he successfully copes with this infection. But if the body's defenses fall, then warts or papillomas appear on the skin.

Many are interested in how papillomas and condylomas differ. In fact, these are manifestations of different forms of the same virus.

what do warts look like

vorter- These are benign neoplasms caused by human papillomavirus types 6 and 11. Some researchers believe that condyloma is more likely to degenerate into cancerous tumors. They are found in the genital area and anus (anus), but can sometimes occur near the mouth. Warts often appear in the form of rashes that consist of many elements. They have an unpleasant property of fusing together and reaching large sizes. On the mucous membrane of the genitals, they grow in the form of a cock comb.

Warts are red or dirty brown, but on the genitals they are lighter. When touched, they are softer and more tender than papillomas. In structure, they resemble the many villi that have grown together at the base.

Warts are more contagious and tend to reappear after treatment. They come in three varieties: genital warts, flat and intraepithelial. These formations must be removed. At the same time, doctors record all cases of condylomatosis.

papillomas on the human body

Papillomas- These are benign neoplasms caused by less dangerous variants of the human papillomavirus, more often type 1, 2, 3, 4 and 10. The risk of developing an oncological tumor in this case is low, papillomas are more of a cosmetic defect thana serious problem. They are located on different parts of the skin: on the eyelids, in the mouth and on the lips, on the chest and neck, under the arms. But they can also be on the genitals.

Papillomas are lighter than warts: pink, white, pearl or light brown. As a rule, they appear one by one, do not merge with each other. They rarely exceed 1 cm in height. The appearance of papillomas is also different - these are rounded, uneven formations on a stem. They look like cauliflower and are firm to the touch.

Papillomas respond better to treatment and may disappear on their own over time. This happens in 20% of cases.

So let's summarize. Papillomas are a less dangerous form of manifestationpapillomavirusperson. But warts need to be removed. However, it is difficult to independently distinguish condyloma from papilloma because each person has their own disease. Therefore, in any case, seek medical advice.

Skin papillomas

Causes of papillomas

human papillomavirus in the body

Papilloma is a round benign tumor on a thin stem that resembles a papilla in shape. But this is not the disease itself, but its consequences. Papillomas can be compared to fungi. Although we see them on the surface, the mycelium has spread its nets underground. Such is the case with papillomas, everything is exactly the same.

The cause of this infectious disease is the human papillomavirus (HPV). It gets on the skin and begins to multiply in its surface layer - squamous epithelium. The virus sits like a mycelium quietly in the thickness of the skin. However, when immunity decreases and a sufficient amount of the pathogen accumulates, it changes the nuclei of the epithelial cells. And because of this, they start producing "wrong" offspring. Skin cells mutated from the virus grow actively and cause the appearance of papilloma.

Methods of infection and methods of infection

  1. Through sexual contact.The thin mucous membrane of the genitals is very susceptible to the virus. If your partner has papillomas on the genitals, then the probability of infection is almost 100%. Using a condom can reduce the risk. However, if the outgrowth is located in an unprotected place (for example, the perineum), then infection will occur in this case. It must be remembered that any kind of sexual contact and even kissing is dangerous with such a partner.
  2. From mother to child during birth.This happens when the expectant mother has warts on the internal or external genitalia. During birth, the baby swallows the virus and he develops papillomas on the larynx. This type of disease is difficult to treat.
  3. Through household items. Particularly often infection occurs through towels, washcloths, razors, epilators. In this way, children from sick parents become infected.
  4. Infection in public places.Bathhouses, swimming pools and changing rooms in gyms can be dangerous. The virus that a sick person leaves on wet surfaces does not die. It causes infection if the infection has gotten on the damaged skin. But the probability of this is not great.
  5. Autoinfection. This means that a papilloma can cause a dozen more neoplasms to appear. Self-infection occurs during shaving or epilation when rubbing with clothing.

Human papillomavirus, types of papillomas

diagnosis of papillomas in humans

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common on the planet. The causative agent of the disease itself is a double strand of DNA with genetic information, surrounded by a protective protein shell. There are over 100 varieties of it. Of these, 40 cause disease in humans. Depending on the type of pathogen, the disease has different manifestations: warts, pointed, flat or intradermal papillomas and genital cancer.

After infection, the virus penetrates the nuclei of the skin cells and begins to multiply there. This continues for about 3-12 months. This period is called the incubation period: the virus is already in the body, but the external manifestations are still invisible.

Then, if the immune system is weakened, microscopic papillae consisting of several cells appear on the surface of the skin. Gradually they increase and can grow up to 10 centimeters. If the immune system is strong, then papillomatosis either does not show up at all or self-healing also occurs. This can occur in adolescents under the age of 25, after birth or when a chronic illness has receded.

There are several types of papillomavirus:

  1. Non-oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 63).This group of viruses that do not cause rebirth in skin cells. HPV types 1, 2, 4 and 63 often cause plantar and vulgar warts on the fingers. 3 and 10 cause flat warts, which were previously considered a serious form of the disease. In fact, in this way, the body tries to limit the spread of the virus. It appears to create a "sarcophagus" around the affected cells.
  2. Oncogenic papillomaviruses with low oncogenic risk (HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44).These types of viruses can eventually cause cancer, but the risk of such a development of the disease is not very high. The cells in the squamous cell carcinoma of the skin mutate only if the body is affected by carcinogenic factors: smoking, poor ecology, long-term use of hormonal contraceptives. Viruses of types 6 and 11 often cause the development of papillomas on the larynx and genital warts on the genitals.
  3. High-risk oncogenic papillomaviruses (HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56, 58, 59 and 68)Infection with these viruses often leads to cancer, especially tumors of the cervix and larynx. They also cause neoplasia, a precancerous condition that manifests itself in a change in the structure of uterine cells. The most dangerous in this group is HPV 16. This type of virus causes 50% of cancer cases. The 18th strain is also quite aggressive and often causes cervical swelling. Types 31 and 35 cause bowenoid papulosis in men and women, which can cause cancer of the penis and cervix. HPV types 51 and 56 are considered to be the least carcinogenic of the whole group, are easier to treat and can be excreted from the body on their own.

Prognosis for the course of the disease

The most unfavorable prognosis for type 18 virus. In 3-5 years, the disease can turn into cancer, which quickly dissolves metastases in other organs. The tumor behaves aggressively and grows deep into the genitals. The prognosis for infection with type 16 is somewhat better, but the probability of recurrence of the tumor after treatment is high.

The prognosis for 31, 33, 35, 39, 52, 58, 59 types of virus is unfavorable. After 2-3 years after treatment, the disease reappears and often becomes malignant. Forces caused by these types of viruses have high mortality rates.

Such adverse prognosis should alert a person if he finds even a small growth on the skin. It is necessary to consult a dermatologist or gynecologist who can diagnose accurately.
You can determine the type of human papillomavirus in laboratories. To do this, take a smear or scrape from the skin area where there are growths. The virus' DNA is then determined in the laboratory. Types of papillomaviruses differ from each other in the structure of DNA chain sections. Helps recognize differencespolymerase chain reaction (PCR).

Symptoms and what do papillomas look like on the skin?

Papillomas on the face (photo)

papillomas in the eye area

These benign growths are often found in places where the skin is thinnest: near the eyes, around the nose and mouth. And in men on the chin in the shaving area. Growth can occur individually or in groups. In appearance, these are rounded outgrowths resembling oblong papillae or cauliflower. Papillomas on the face are pink or brownish in color.
First, a small bump, resembling a pimple, appears on the surface of the skin. Gradually it increases in size, grows up and to the sides. In diameter, the papilloma reaches up to 3 cm. Its base is narrower and the cap is round and tuberous.

If papilloma of the face in women mainly causes aesthetic problems, then it is more difficult in men. The outgrowths are constantly damaged during shaving and it can cause severe inflammation.

A person becomes infected through bodily contact with a sick person. It can be hugs, sexual contact or for example through shared towels. From the moment of infection to the appearance of papillomas on the face, it can take from 3 months to a year. Often, growths form on the skin after infections, severe stress, hypothermia, during pregnancy, when immunity drops.

Papillomas on the skin of the neck and body (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the neck

Papillomas can occur anywhere on the body. Their location depends on the sex, route of infection and type of HPV. Some variants of the virus cause the appearance of warts mainly on the genitals, others on the body. In men, papillomas most often occur under the armpits, on the sides of the body and on the neck. In women, they occur on the breasts, under the breasts, on the nipples and in the armpits. But growths can also occur on other parts of the body: on the abdomen, back, hips.

Papillomas on the body occur on average 3 months after infection. However, the virus can build up in the skin for several years, and only manifest itself after the fall of the body's immune system.

While the papilloma of the skin on the neck and body is small, it can be confused with goosebumps. But gradually it grows and begins to bring a lot of inconvenience: it clings to clothes, becomes inflamed, bleeds. In this case, you can not postpone the visit to the doctor.

Papillomas on the skin of the hands (photo)

papillomas on the hands

Vulgar papillomas or warts often appear on the skin of the hands, which is caused by HPV types 3 and 10. They are transmitted from a sick to a healthy person and often grow in places where there were small skin lesions, especially near the nails. From infection to the appearance of warts it takes about 2-6 months.

Papillomas on the hands have their own characteristics. They are flatter and do not sit on a narrow leg, but directly on the skin. These are small rounded formations of a yellowish color with an uneven keratinizing surface. When touched, they are dense and rough. Neighboring elements often fuse together and can hit a large surface. They are often located on the fingers, palms and in children and on the knees. This is because babies crawl without clothes. In children, warts appear more often than in adults because their skin is thinner and more susceptible to the virus.

Papillomas on the skin of the feet (photo)

papillomas on the skin of the feet

These, benign, growths on the soles are sometimes referred to as spines. They cause sore pains and burning pains when walking and can give a person many problems.

The disease is caused by the human papillomavirus, or rather its types 1, 2 and 4. 4-6 weeks after infection, a smooth, slight bump appears on the skin. Gradually it increases in size and turns yellow. Its surface becomes inhomogeneous, uneven or villous. Growth surrounds the protruding edge. In 30% of cases, papillomas on the sole disappear on their own. Self-healing occurs mainly in adolescents with strong immunity.
Sometimes plantar papillomas are confused with hard skin, which occurs with prolonged squeezing of the feet with shoes. However, the skin pattern remains on the callus, and the surface of the plantar wart consists of separate rounded elements.

Removal of skin papillomas

laser papilloma removal

Papillomas are removed when they ruin the appearance, are often injured, inflamed or tend to degenerate into a cancerous tumor. The most important treatment for papillomas is their removal. But in order for warts to never bother you again, you must undergo a course of treatment:

  • Immunostimulatory drugs to strengthen the body's defenses.
  • Antiviral drugs. They do not destroy the causative agent of the disease, but only limit its growth.
  • cytotoxic drugs. These drugs cause the death of the cells that make up the papillomas and warts. They are used when the rash is very common and the larynx and other internal organs are affected. These drugs can cause serious side effects.

But the only effective remedy is mechanical removal. Modern medicine offers several ways to do this. Let's take a look at their features.

Surgical removal of papillomas.

The operation is performed if the size of the papilloma is more than 1 cm, or there is a suspicion that there are cancer cells in the formation. Often the doctor excised and some healthy tissue. This is necessary so that the outgrowth does not reappear. After removal, a suture is applied. The procedure is performed under local anesthesia and takes 10-15 minutes. In this case, the patient does not experience pain.

In some cases, when the papilloma has a thin stem, it is cut off with surgical scissors. The vessel that fed her blood is then sealed (coagulated) using an electrocoagulator. The area is treated with an antiseptic.

Disadvantages of the method: a fairly large area of skin is removed. It takes a long time to heal, after the operation scars and scars can occur.

Cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen.

cauterization of papillomas with liquid nitrogen

Another name for this method is cryodestruction, i. e. destruction of cold. After the tumor (papilloma) has been examined and the analysis has shown that it is benign and there are no altered cells in it, then you can proceed to the operation.

The doctor touches the papilloma with a cotton swab dipped in liquid nitrogen or a special nozzle. The nitrogen temperature is -196 degrees. The exposure time is 5-20 seconds. The duration of cauterization depends on the size of the papilloma. Upon contact with liquid nitrogen, the water in the cells freezes, turns to ice, and its crystals destroy papillomas.

The procedure is painless, but if the skin at this site is very sensitive, it is anesthetized with an injection of novocaine in the sore site. After treatment with nitrogen, the skin turns white and gradually forms a small bubble filled with a clear or pink liquid at this site. The surrounding skin is red and swollen. At this stage, a person may experience discomfort - burning and tingling. But they pass gradually.

After the procedure, the doctor recommends treating the skin with boron alcohol or potassium permanganate solution twice a day for a week. The ointment prevents infection, increases local immunity and reduces the risk of recurrence of papilloma.

The bubble bursts after 3-4 days and turns into a crust that protects the wound from damage. Gradually, the top layer disappears and healthy, pink skin remains beneath it.

Liquid nitrogen removal is recommended if papillomas are located on the eyelids or small joints. Cryodestruction is also used to remove growths on the genitals.

Disadvantage of the method: If the doctor slightly freezes the diseased area of the skin, then it is possible to reappear the papilloma. Freezing too much damages healthy tissue and causes scarring.

Laser papilloma removal.

Prior to removal, an assay is performed to rule out the presence of cancer cells. The site where the wart or papilloma is located is anesthetized with a lidocaine spray. The patient is asked to wear goggles.

A beam of laser beams is aimed at the neoplasm. A papilloma is not affected for more than a minute. The laser evaporates water in diseased cells, they shrink and become a crust. After half an hour, the skin around it turns red and swells, this is a normal reaction that passes in a few days.

The crust falls off by itself in 5-7 days. Instead, soft pink skin. Gradually, its color evens out and there are no traces of papilloma at the site of the defect. It will take about 2 weeks for complete healing. During this period, protect your skin from direct sunlight. Otherwise, a dark brown spot will appear at the site of the papilloma.

Cauterization of papillomas with a laser avoids infection of the wound with microorganisms and seals the vessels. Therefore, bleeding does not occur during and after surgery.

The crust that forms at the site of the papilloma is not recommended to be moistened and steamed for 3 days. Also, until complete healing, you can not apply decorative cosmetics. This will prevent the appearance of scars. Treat this area with a solution of potassium permanganate or a healing ointment with an antibiotic as recommended by a doctor.
Using a laser, papillomas on the arms, legs, face and genitals are removed.

Disadvantage of the method: when you remove large papillomas with a laser, scars can remain. Cryodestruction can cause the papilloma to decrease in height but will grow in width

Electrocoagulation of papillomas.

This is the removal of neoplasms using electric current. A special electrocoagulator allows you to wipe the narrow base of the papilloma or the entire wart. Then the growth is easily separated from the skin. Bleeding from the wound does not occur because the vessels are sealed with current.

Recovery will take 7-10 days. At this time it is recommended to treat the crusts with alcohol tincture of calendula twice a day. This will help avoid infection. After the crust has fallen off, there is a thin pink skin under it, which must be protected from damage and direct sunlight.

The main advantage of this method is that the papilloma can be sent for examination to an oncologist.
Disadvantages of the method. If it is not enough to treat the area where the papilloma was located, it may grow back after a while. Removal on sensitive areas (genitals) can be painful.

What is the best way to remove papillomas on the face and body?

Removal of papillomas in the face

Papillomas on the face are a significant lack of appearance. Therefore, their removal is a procedure that is performed very often. The choice of method depends on the size of the structure and its structure.

Removal of papillomas with liquid nitrogen is widespread in many clinics and beauty salons. After that, in most cases, no scarring occurs on the skin.

Laser removal is also very popular. The specialist precisely doses the power of the laser. This helps to "evaporate" papilloma cells, but does not affect healthy tissue. It is considered to be the safest procedure because the laser destroys microbes that cause inflammation.

Electrocoagulation and traditional scalpel removal are more painful, and wounds after such surgeries heal longer.

If you prefer to be treated with natural remedies, try to remove the defect in the face using wormwood, celandine or calendula juice. To do this, moisten the papilloma several times a day with juice that stands out from the stem of the plant.

Removal of papillomas on the eyelid

The skin on the eyelids is very thin and often develops rashes of growths. Removal of papillomas on the eyelid requires special precision. Therefore, do not go to random beauty salons. It is better to leave this work to a dermatologist.

For best results, remove with liquid nitrogen or laser. These methods allow you to make the procedure bloodless and avoid infection of the wound with bacteria.

Removal of papillomas on the neck

Papillomas in this area are often injured by clothing or jewelry, becoming inflamed. To prevent infection, doctors recommend removing them.

The most common method is cauterizing outgrowths with a laser beam. The operation lasts no longer than 1 minute for 1 growth. This method may not completely protect against the recurrence of papillomas, but still reduces the risk.

Electrocoagulation is also used. A thin instrument through which a high-frequency current passes, heats the tissues and kills the virus. After such a procedure, the papilloma can be sent for research.

Radiowave surgery also has an excellent effect. A thin metal loop is applied to the skin around the papilloma. She creates radio waves. During their action, the skin cells "dry out" and the growth disappears. According to the operating principle, the method is similar to removal with a laser.

Removal of papilloma on the body

removal of papilloma on the body

It is necessary to remove papillomas on the body when there are many of them, they grow and fuse together, become inflamed and cause discomfort. You can get rid of them with the help of a traditional surgery. Large papillomas are cut with a scalpel. At the same time, an area of healthy skin is also captured to remove all cells affected by the virus. However, this method is used when there is a suspicion that cancer cells have formed.

A more modern and gentle method is cryodestruction. Liquid nitrogen quickly freezes the papilloma and it disappears. The remaining crust should be treated twice a day with an alcohol tincture of calendula and protected from water.

If possible, you can remove the papilloma with a laser or using an electrocoagulator.
After removal of papillomas, the patient can go home almost immediately. However, the patient still needs to undergo an antiviral course of treatment and make sure to strengthen the immune system.